Hot Disk TPS

Absolute measurement of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat.
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Hot Disk Transient Plane Source

The Hot Disk TPS is widely used for the accurate measurement of absolute thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of solids, liquids, pastes, and powders. This non-destructive method has a thermal conductivity testing range of 0.005 to 1800 W/mK and can be used to measure bulk properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials, as well as directional properties for anisotropic materials.  This versatility is greatly appreciated by academic and commercial users alike, which has led to more than 1000 publications on a wide variety of applications.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Materials

Versatility

Solids, Liquids, Pastes, & Powders

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Absolute

Absolute – Quantitative

No Calibration

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight No Contact Agent

No Contact Agent

Effects of Contact Resistance Removed

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Sensors

TPS Sensors

Two-sided & Single-sided

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight iTPS

iTPS PLUGIN

Expanded Use

Featured Hot Disk TPS Capabilities

The TPS sensor is comprised of a flat, double-spiral of Nickel, encapsulated between layers of dielectric insulation. The sensor is electrically connected to a separated power supply and electrical resistance sensing circuit. An auto-balancing Wheatstone bridge is used to maximize electrical resistance sensitivity at the sensor spiral, which is critical for measuring a wide range of thermal conductivity. During a measurement, a current passes through the spiral and creates an increase in temperature, which is recorded over time. Heat generated, dissipates into the sample at a rate dependent on the thermal transport characteristics of the material.

A unique feature of the Hot Disk TPS, is the ability to remove the effects of contact resistance from a measurement without the use of a contact agent. Contact resistance presents itself as a non-linear region at the start of the calculated results for the transient measurement. This is easily identified and removed, manually or automatically, leaving a linear slope free of contact resistance.

From this slope, high accuracy thermal conductivity (W/mK) and thermal diffusivity (mm2/s) is calculated, without the need of complex calibration. Additional properties including volumetric heat capacity (MJ/m3K) and thermal effusivity (Ws½/m2K) are automatically calculated and displayed.

  • Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, & specific heat
  • Solids, liquids, pastes, & powders
  • ISO & ASTM Standards
  • No calibration
  • No contact agent
  • Control of penetration depth with variable test times
  • Two-sided & single-sided sensors
  • Bulk & directional properties
  • Proven method with 1000+ publications

  • Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, & specific heat
  • Solids, liquids, pastes, & powders
  • ISO & ASTM Standards
  • No calibration
  • No contact agent

  • Control of penetration depth with variable test times
  • Two-sided & single-sided sensors
  • Bulk & directional properties
  • Proven method with 1000+ publications

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SAMPLE MEASUREMENT

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample

1

Sample Set-Up

When testing in the laboratory, two sample pieces may be clamped on either side of the TPS sensor. If two sample pieces are not available, the TPS single-sided sensor may be used. For compressible materials, a compression stand may be used to record force applied and thickness of the sample.

Approximate Time: 1 minute

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample

2

TPS Software

Power and test time parameters may be selected manually or automatically with the included iTPS Plugin. Only requiring input of sample dimensions, the iTPS automatically selects test times to maximize penetration depth for measurement of thermal conductivity. Advanced software features are available for automation of multiple tests or control of temperature.

Approximate Time: 2 minute

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample Clamp

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Measurement

Once start measurement is selected, the Hot Disk TPS will first auto-balance an internal Wheatstone bridge for maximum sensitivity. A temperature drift log of 40 seconds is then recorded. Once complete, the test automatically begins, and the temperature rise with time raw data is displayed.

Approximate Time: <2 minute

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample Run

4

Result Calculations

As the Hot Disk TPS method is absolute, the results are calculated from the temperature rise vs. time graph, after a measurement is complete. At this point, the effects of contact resistance at the early portion of the measurement can be removed manually or automatically with the iTPS Plugin. Results can then be exported to Excel or Notepad.

Approximate Time: 1 minutes

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample

1

The Sample

The sample should be between 150 mm and 300 mm square (6 in to 12 in square), and have parallel surfaces. Sample height is automatically measured by the HFM 100; however for compressible materials, desired sample thickness can be manually entered for predetermined testing thickness.

Approximate Time: 1 minute

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample

2

Insert Sample

Place the sample between the HFM 100’s parallel testing plates.  For smaller samples or samples of differing shapes from the testing chamber, place the sample within the center of the lower plate, positioned directly over the heat flux sensor.

Approximate Time: 1 minute

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample Clamp

3

Close Plates

The top plate automatically lowers for rigid samples or to a predetermined thickness for compressible samples. For added accuracy when testing rigid samples, the top plate makes a short confirming movement for optimum contact and measurement of thickness. Additionally, this short movement will also compensate for any issue with sample flatness.

Approximate Time: 1 minute

HFM-100 Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Steps Sample Run

4

Run Experiment

A single mean temperature or steps of temperature may be selected for an automated testing routine. Testing can be performed in either quality control (20 to 30 min) or high accuracy (30 to 60 min) modes for test times which best fit your application. Once testing is complete, results can be saved, printed, or exported to Microsoft Excel for further processing.

Approximate Time: 20-60 minutes

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Specifications

Standard ISO 22007-2.2

Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System
Models
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 3500
TPS 3500
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 2500 S
TPS 2500 S
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 2200
TPS 2200
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 1500
TPS 1500
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 500
TPS 500 / 500 S
Solids, Liquids, Pastes, and Powders check check check check check
Thermal Conductivity & Thermal Diffusivity check check check check check
Bulk or Average check check check check check
Through-thickness check check check check  
Through-plane check check check check  
Two-sided & Single-sided Sensors check check check check check
Minimum Sample Size (diameter or square) 2 mm 2 mm 6 mm 13 mm 13 mm / 6 mm
Maximum Sample Size 1 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Thermal Conductivity Range 0.005 to 1800 W/mK 0.005 to 1000+ W/mK 0.01 to 500 W/mK 0.01 to 20+ W/mK 0.03 to 100 / 200 W/mK
Temperature Range -160 to 1000°C -160 to 1000°C -160 to 750°C -160 to 750°C -160 to 300°C

 

 
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System
Models
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 3500
TPS 3500
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 2500 S
TPS 2500 S
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 2200
TPS 2200
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 1500
TPS 1500
Hot Disk Thermal Conductivity System TPS 500
TPS 500 / 500 S
Solids, Liquids, Pastes, and Powders check check check check check
Thermal Conductivity & Thermal Diffusivity check check check check check
Bulk or Average check check check check check
Through-thickness check check check check  
Through-plane check check check check  
Two-sided & Single-sided Sensors check check check check check
Minimum Sample Size (diameter or square) 2 mm 2 mm 6 mm 13 mm 13 mm / 6 mm
Maximum Sample Size 1 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Thermal Conductivity Range 0.005 to 1800 W/mK 0.005 to 1000+ W/mK 0.01 to 500 W/mK 0.01 to 20+ W/mK 0.03 to 100 / 200 W/mK
Temperature Range -160 to 1000°C -160 to 1000°C -160 to 750°C -160 to 750°C -160 to 300°C

 

1 Although there is no maximum sample size, there are limits on depths of heat penetration.
This depth of penetration is determined by available test times and thermal diffusivity (mm2/sec) of the material.

iTPS full automation of TPS parameters and calculations

With the introduction of the iTPS Plugin, full automation of TPS parameters and calculations is possible.

TPS Effusivity Module

All Models

TPS Specifications: ASTM D7984
1-D Thermal Effusivity Range: up to 60,000 Ws½/m2K
Materials: Textiles

Using the thermal property of effusivity, the human feeling of comfort (coolness or warmth) can be measured for textiles and automotive interiors. In addition to the initial feeling of comfort, covered by the ASTM, this feeling of comfort can also be measured with longer touch times, providing design engineers with a full understanding of how effusivity changes with touch time.

TLS Module

All Models

TLS Specifications: ASTM D5334, ASTM D5930, & IEEE 442-1981
Thermal Conductivity Range: 0.1 to 5 W/mK
Materials: Soil, Concrete, Rocks, and Plastics

The transient line source (TLS) method is commonly used for testing the thermal conductivity and thermal resistivity of soils, rocks, concretes, and plastics. The standard 100 mm probe is ideal for soft, or easy to drill samples, while the shorter 50 mm needle is best suited for harder to drill, rigid samples like rock and concrete.

THW Module

All Models

THW Specifications: ASTM D7896
Thermal Conductivity Range: 0.01 to 2 W/mK
Materials: Liquids and Pastes

The transient hot wire (THW) method, for thermal conductivity testing of liquids. The THW features unique characteristics to limit the effects of convection; short test times, thin diameter (0.1 mm) wire, and the wire is held in a vertical orientation, when testing liquids. With this control of convection, testing of a wide range of viscosities is possible.

Dilatometer Module

All Models

Dilatometer Specifications: ASTM E228
Measures: Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
Materials: Solids

A compact, digital, horizontal, single-sample, benchtop system for measuring dimensional changes of solid materials, such as ceramics, glass, metals, carbon composites, cements, minerals, and polymers, from RT to 1000°C. The dilatometer records reversible and irreversible changes in length (expansion and contraction) during heating and cooling.

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Highlights

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Versatility

The Hot Disk TPS is able to measure solids, liquids, pastes, and powders for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat. These properties can be measured on a broad range of samples sizes; samples as small as 2 x 2 mm, to an unlimited maximum size. For liquids, the sample volume can be as small as 3 ml. A unique feature of the Hot Disk TPS – its ability to measure powders of various particle sizes.

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Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Absolute

Absolute – Quantitative

Measured results of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat are absolute and quantitative, without the requirement of factory, or user calibrations. The Hot Disk transient plane source (TPS) technology was developed by Dr. Silas Gustavsson, from his award-winning research in thermal conductivity measurements, dating back to the 1960’s. The Hot Disk TPS technology has been widely recognized as one of the most accurate testing methods commercially available, having undergone multiple independent published theory investigations. This acceptance has led to more than 1000 systems sold world-wide and more than 1000+ publications and growing across countless testing applications.

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Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight No Contact Agent

No Contact Agent

An important testing capability of the Hot Disk TPS is the ability to remove the effects of contact resistance, without the need of a contact agent, between the sensor and sample. The early portion of a test represents contact resistance and is non-linear, when compared to the remainder of the test, representing the heat from the sensor as it dissipates into the sample in a linear fashion. The non-linear portion of the test, representing contact resistance, can be removed automatically or manually after the measurement is made. As the contact resistance does not require normalizing with a contact agent, measurements on materials from insulations to conductive metals are possible, without calibration.

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Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Penetration Depth

Penetration Depth

The Hot Disk TPS measures thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with different intervals of test times (0.1 to 1280 sec) and sensor diameters (1 to 60 mm). Control of test times are critical when using a transient measurement, as it ensures the true thermal conductivity is representative of the sample dimension and is not just a surface measurement, common to methods using only short test times. The penetration depth of the heat from the sensor is based on three sample qualities: dimensions, thermal diffusivity (mm2/s), and test time. As the Hot Disk measures thermal diffusivity, the results are displayed with representative penetration depth, based on the dimensions of the sample. Test times can be manually selected, or with the iTPS Plugin, automatically selected.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Penetration Depth
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Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight Sensors

Two-sided & Single-sided

Hot Disk TPS sensors can be used in both two-sided and single-sided configurations. Highly accurate lab testing can be performed by surrounding the flat sensor with a sample piece, on either side. If two pieces of a sample are not available, the unique single-sided sensor, first invented by Dr. Silas Gustavsson in 1983*, can be used. There are two versions of the single-sided sensor available; a standard two-sided sensor can be configured for single-sided testing by placing an insulation material of known properties on one side of the sensor, the second option is a permanently configured spring-loaded single-sided sensor, for convenient testing of large, hard to handle samples.
*Gustafsson, Karawacki. July 1983. Transient hot-strip probe for measuring thermal properties of insulating solids and liquids. Review of Scientific Instruments, 54(6):744 – 747.

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Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight iTPS

iTPS Plugin

With the introduction of the iTPS Plugin, full automation of TPS parameters and calculations is possible. While maintaining the ability to manually select parameters, the iTPS provides full automation of all aspects of TPS measurement. In addition, the already versatile Hot Disk TPS is expanded for testing according to multiple international testing standards; TPS – Thermal Effusivity for Textiles (ASTM D7984), TLS – Thermal Conductivity for Soil, Concrete, and Polymers (ASTM D5334, ASTM D5930, & IEEE 442-1981), THW – Thermal Conductivity for Liquids (ASTM D7896), and coefficient of thermal expansion (ASTM E228).

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Highlight iTPS
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Testing Modules

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Isotropic Testing Module

Standard

For measurement of bulk or average thermal conductivity (W/mK), thermal diffusivity (mm2/s), and volumetric heat capacity (MJ/m3K) of homogeneous and heterogeneous solids, liquids, pastes, and powders.  Standard measurements can be made with TPS two-sided and TPS single-sided sensors for highest accuracy and maximum flexibility.
Available on:
All TPS Models

Thermal Conductivity Anisotropic Testing Module

Anisotropic

Directional (axial and radial) thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity for anisotropic materials. This testing module requires the input of volumetric heat capacity; if not known, it can be easily measured with the TPS specific heat testing module. Anisotropic measurements may be made with TPS two-sided and TPS single-sided sensors.
Available on:
TPS 3500, TPS 2500 S, TPS 2200, TPS 1500

Thermal Conductivity Slab Testing Module

Slab

Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of sheets or slabs. Ideal for thin conductive materials like steel, aluminum, copper, and graphite.  Measurements of samples from 0.04 to 10 mm thick, and as high as 1800 W/mK are possible.
Available on:
TPS 3500, TPS 2500 S, TPS 2200, TPS 500 S

 

Thermal Conductivity One Dimensional Testing Module

One-Dimensional

Designed for measuring along the length of elongated materials, like rods or core samples. This module is particularly powerful for testing complex materials, such as heterogeneous or anisotropic materials, which are difficult to test with standard testing techniques. This testing can be done with the standard two-sided or single-sided sensor formats.
Available on:
TPS 3500, TPS 2500 S, TPS 1500, TPS 500 S

 

Thermal Conductivity Thin-Film Testing Module

Thin-Film

Designed for the measurement of thermal conductivity on free standing thin-films or coatings (> 0.01 mm).  The thin-film testing module is most widely used in the measurement of polymer films, however additional testing of coatings is also possible.
Available on:
TPS 3500, TPS 2500 S, TPS 2200

 

Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Testing Module

Specific Heat

In addition to calculated volumetric heat capacity from the measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, the Hot Disk TPS is able to directly measure, with high accuracy, specific heat. With various sizes of specific heat cells available (7 to 300 mm), unique testing of complex structures and heterogeneous materials is possible.
Available on:
TPS 3500, TPS 2500 STPS 2200, TPS 1500, TPS 500 S

 

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TPS Accessories

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter

Sensors

Hot Disk TPS thermal conductivity sensors are available in both a two-sided and single-sided design. There is also a variety of sensors available for different material types, geometries, and measurement temperatures.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Temperature Options Environment

Temperature & Environment

Several options are available for testing materials at temperatures (-160°C to 1000°C) and vacuum / backfilled environment conditions. Many of these options offer automated testing.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Sample Holder

Sample Holders

In addition to the standard single sample holder, optional multi-sample holders and various high-temperature sample holders are available for use with TPS.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Reference Materials

Reference & Training Materials

Several traceable and internally developed reference materials are available for the purpose of performance verification and training.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter TPS Switch

Multi-Sensor Switch & Multi-Sample

With the Hot Disk TPS optional Multi-Sensor Switch and Multi-Sample Holders, the TPS system can be used for high volume testing or multi-sensor on-line applications. This testing can be performed in an automated sequence.

Thermal Conductivity Laboratory Instrument Portable Meter Warranty

Extended Warranty & Support

In addition to the comprehensive one year warranty and support included with the purchase of the TPS, Thermtest offers a variety of other warranty and support options.

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Download Hot Disk TPS Brochure

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Demonstration Corner

Find a variety of recorded, live and one-on-one by request product demonstrations, webinars, and additional interesting technical videos. Request a free demonstration to see how a thermal conductivity measurement or thermal resistance test is completed.

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