Measurement Platform (MP-1)

The MP-1 is designed to test the absolute thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of solids, liquids, pastes and powders with the powerful combination of the transient plane source (TPS, ISO 22007-2) and transient hot-wire (THW, ASTM D7896-19) methods.

Best For Solids, Liquids, Pastes, and Powders

TPS-Temperature Platform

TPS-TP: 0 to 300 °C
Expanded: -160 °C | -50 °C | -20 °C | 0 to 300 °C
Uniformity: < 0.1 °C

THW-Temperature Platform

THW-TP: 10 to 200 °C
Extended for 200 °C: -15 °C | 0 °C to 200 °C
Extended for 300 °C: -160 °C | -45 °C | 0 °C to 300 °C

The powerful combination of Transient Plane Source (TPS, ISO 22007-2) for solids, and Transient Hot Wire (THW, ASTM D7896-19) for liquids, gives the Thermtest MP-1 a unique and versatile selection of testing methods for almost any sample type. The TPS and THW methods are both widely used for accurate measurement of absolute thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal effusivity. This versatility is greatly expanded with the addition of Thermtest’s proprietary Temperature Platform (TP) which is appreciated by academic and commercial users alike.

Following ISO 22007-2 and ASTM D7896-19, the TPS and THW are primary measurement methods, trusted worldwide with thousands of published papers.

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    Features

    MP-1 Measurement Platform Parts

    MP-1 Methods

    The Transient Plane Source (TPS) and Transient Hot Wire (THW) share similar theory, with differences that are specific to their primary design. The basic theory is that the sensor is electrically connected to a power supply and sensing circuit. A current passes through the sensor and creates an increase in temperature, which is recorded over time. The heat generated is then diffused into the sample at a rate dependent on the thermal transport characteristics of the material.

    TPS Sensor
    Transient Plane Source Sensor (TPS, ISO 22007-2)

    The TPS sensor designed for solids, pastes, and powders is comprised of a double-spiral of nickel encapsulated between layers of insulation. Standard operation of this sensor (Two-Sided) is sandwiched between two pieces of the same sample, with expanded use to single-sided sensor, which only requires one piece of sample (Single-Sided). The proprietary Thermtest TPS calculation model measures the contact resistance between sensor and sample, as well as the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat and thermal effusivity of the sample.

    THW Sensor
    Transient Hot Wire Sensor (THW, ASTM D7896-19)

    The THW sensor designed for liquids, as well as pastes and small particle powders consists of a replaceable thin heating wire (40 mm in length) secured to specially designed sensor and sample cell which allows back pressurizing liquids to measure thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric specific heat past boiling temperatures. Measurements are done at short test times (1 second) to limit convective effects on samples with a wide range of viscosities.

    Specification
    Methods Transient Plane Source (TPS) Transient Hot Wire (THW)
    Materials Solids, Pastes, and Powders Liquids, Pastes, and Powders
    Testing Modules 3D: Bulk, Anisotropic, Slab | 1D: Standard, Thin-films General: Specific Heat Bulk
    Thermal Conductivity 0.005 to 1800 W/m•K 0.01 to 2 W/m•K
    Sample Size* 5 x 5 mm to unlimited 20 mL
    Sample Thickness* 0.01 mm to unlimited N/A
    Additional Properties Thermal Diffusivity | Specific Heat |Thermal Effusivity Thermal Diffusivity | Specific Heat
    Sensor Contact Resistance Measured N/A
    Temperature Platform (TP) 0 to 300 °C
    -160 °C | -50 °C | -20 °C | 0 to 300 °C
    10 to 200 °C | -15/0 to 200 °C
    0 to 300 °C | -45 to 300 °C | -160 to 300 °C
    Extended Temperature Range -160 to 1000 °C N/A
    Test Time (seconds) 0.25 to 1280 seconds 1 second
    Data-Points (points / second) Up to 600 points / second 400 points / second
    Thermal Conductivity Accuracy 5% 2%
    Repeatability 1% 1%
    Sample Configuration Symmetric (Two-Sided) | Asymmetric (Single-Sided) N/A
    Standard ISO 22007-2:2015 ASTM D7896-19

    *Based on testing module used.

    Thermal Conductivity vs. Temperature
    NIST-Aluminum-Graph
    NIST Quartz

    As materials are unique, the reliance on reference information to predict thermal conductivity or its relationship with temperature, can lead to the use of inaccurate data. Using NIST’s “Thermal Conductivity of Selected Materials” reference for aluminum and quartz, we can see that there is a wide variance in thermal conductivity vs. temperature. Due to the dramatic variance in global material sources, it is critically important to fully characterize materials for thermophysical properties. Optional temperature capability can be added to the MP-1, allowing for full temperature characterization.

    Citation: Powell, R.W., Ho, C.Y., and Liley, P.E. (1996). Thermal Conductivity of Selected Materials. Washington, U.S.: Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards; for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.. Govt. Printing Office. pp. 17, 99.

    Data Acquisition Software

    Designed from the ground up, the MP-1 Data Acquisition Software (DAQ) smartly controls all aspects of testing and scheduling. Testing methods and experimental parameters may be selected for automated scheduling.

    A unique feature for the MP-1 is the integration of a four channel switch which is designed to allow automation of multiple devices and sensors to be controlled at the same time, greatly increasing testing capacity.

    Data Acquisition Software

    Methods and Parameters

    Methods and testing modules can be selected and parameters optimized for solids, liquids, pastes, and powders.

    Data Acquisition Software

    Scheduling

    Any combination of methods, devices and sensors can be scheduled to operate at a variety of conditions, such as temperature range.

    Switch
    Switch

    Integrated into each MP-1, the four port switch enables use of a number of optional devices, temperature platforms and sensors to maximize convenience and capacity.

    Analysis Software

    Analysis Software

    Creating a better user experience, the Analysis Software (AS) was designed to operate independent of the DAQ. A wide range of analysis operations can be conveniently accomplished. Testing data is grouped together based on method used, making corresponding calculations easy to apply.

    Analysis Software

    Variations in applied corrections are stored for easy comparison. In addition to summary of results, variations in applied corrections are stored for easy comparison and exporting.

    TPS Contact Analysis
    TPS theory states that the non-linear section of temperature rise vs time, known as contact resistance has to be removed, so the intrinsic thermophysical calculations are based on the linear region of transient. This can be done manually by iteratively removing start points till best fit is achieved. Although this is a suitable approach, it does take an experienced user to reduce errors and achieve required repeatability.

    The contact resistance between the sensor and sample is dependent on the quality of the sample surface. When manually removing the contact resistance a small number of points (step 1) is removed and newly calculated for best fit analysis. If the resulting residual mean deviation can be improved, more points (step 2) can be removed and calculation steps repeated.

    Raw Data

    Raw Data

    Calculation Data

    calculation data

    Residual Data

    Residual Data

    Alternatively, using our proprietary Contact Analysis (CA), the MP-1 is able to calculate the contact resistance (m²/KW) between sensor and sample, automatically removing the corresponding start time. In addition to better understanding the effects of surface finish on your measurements, this greatly simplifies the analysis for the intrinsic thermophysical properties. Demonstrating the application of the contact analysis measurement, four samples of stainless steel 316 with different surfaces were measured for thermophysical properties.

    As the MP-1 is able to measure contact resistance, selection of the calculation window is greatly simplified, maximizing repeatability of the intrinsic properties of the sample as the surface roughness increases, the measured contact resistance also increases.

    Stainless Steel 316
    Surface Finishes Surface Roughness
    Ra (um)
    Contact Resistance
    (m²K/W)
    Conductivity
    (W/m·K)
    Diffusivity
    (mm²/s)
    Volumetric Specific Heat
    (MJ/m³K)
    Effusivity
    (W√s/m²K)
    Polished 0.101 Mean 1.00E-04 13.80 3.73 3.70 7149
    %RSD 6 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.2
    Machined 0.324 Mean 1.54E-04 13.93 3.75 3.71 7194
    %RSD 1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1
    400 grit 0.516 Mean 1.32E-04 13.84 3.74 3.71 7163
    %RSD 2 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1
    80 grit 2.78 Mean 2.41E-04 13.85 3.73 3.71 7171
    %RSD 1 0.02 0.2 0.2 0.1

    stainless steel 316

    TPS Sensors
    TPS 400 °C or 800 or 1000 °C)
    TPS (400 °C or 800 / 1000 °C)

    Standard double-spiral nickel sensor patterns can be insulated in various insulation types for use at a wide range of temperatures.

    TPS Sensors
    TPS Sensors

    Sensors for testing solids, paste, and powders. Configurations of symmetric (two-sided) with one sample piece on top and bottom of sensor and asymmetric (single-sided) requiring only one piece of sample.

    TPS Vertical Strip Sensors

    TPS Vertical Sensors

    New proprietary sensor (TPS Vertical Strip) design is a near perfect circle, which better follows the ideal TPS theory. When testing with small sensor radii, this improved design reduces required corrections, while decreasing measurement uncertainty. When comparing the Corrected Radius between small diameter TPS sensors, the TPS Vertical Strip (2 mm, 1.30%) requires less correction when compared to TPS Double Spiral (2 mm, 5.75%) of the same radius. As the TPS sensor radius increases, this advantage is reduced.

    Radius (mm) Corrected Radius (mm) % Difference
    TPS Vertical Strip Sensor 2 2.026 1.30
    3.2 3.201 0.03
    6.4 6.405 0.08
    TPS Double Spiral Sensor 2 2.115 5.75
    3.2 3.28 2.50
    6.4 6.591 2.98
    9.9 10.11 2.12
    TPS Modules

    Thermtest offers a growing selection of testing modules which are grouped based on their testing theory.

    3-Dimensional

    Standard 3-Dimensional Module
    Standard copy

    Bulk thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal effusivity

    Anisotropic 3 Dimensional Module
    Anisotropic copy

    In-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity

    Slab 3 Dimensional Module
    Slab copy

    Isolated in-plane, for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric specific heat for thin, conductive sheets

    1-Dimensional

    Standard 1-Dimensional module
    Standard copy

    Isolated out-of-plane, for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity for elongated shapes, rods and bars

    Thin Film 1-Dimensional Module
    Thin-film

    Thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of free-standing films and coatings

    General

    General 1-Dimensional Module
    Specific Heat copy

    High accuracy direct measurement of specific heat. Various cell dimensions available, for improved accuracy of heterogenous materials

    MP-1 with TPS Battery Package

    Combining the special measurement features of the transient plane source (MP-1 TPS) method, the TPS Battery Package is designed to accurately measure the directional (Anisotropic) thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of cylinder and pouch type batteries. The TPS Battery Package includes the required testing modules; Specific Heat Module, 1-Dimensional and Anisotropic.

    Battery Types

    Cylindrical batteries
    Cylindrical Type
    Prismatic - Pouch Type
    Prismatic - Pouch Type

    Cylindrical Batteries

    Cylinder type batteries consist of sheets of anodes, separators and cathodes that are rolled into a cylinder shape and packed into a can. The round shape maximizes strength and stability, making it one of the most popular batteries manufactured.

    Specific Heat Module - Batteries

    Specific Heat Capacity is measured with TPS Specific Heat Module with Cp Cell designed for cylinder shapes. First a reference measurement is done on empty Cp cell, followed by measurement with inserted battery. Results are measured in Heat Capacity (J/K), Specific Heat (kJ/kg-K) and Volumetric Specific Heat (MJ/m³K).

    Included with the Specific Module for batteries is one standard cylinder Cp Cell, TPS Sensor and Battery Insulation Block. Custom Cp Cells can also be developed for a wide range of battery sizes.

    Empty Cp Cell Reference Setup

    Cylinder (Type 21700) Battery Cp Cell Sample Setup

    1 – Dimensional Module – Batteries

    The Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity are measured along the height of a cylinder with the 1-Dimensional (1-D) Module. Cylinder 1-Dimensional

    TPS Sensor of similar diameter is set-up in single-sided (asymmetric) configuration. Using the Battery Insulation Block, the battery is insulated to guard against lateral heat loss.

    Included with the 1-D Module for batteries is one TPS Sensor and Battery Insulation Block. Custom TPS diameter can also be developed for a wide range of battery sizes.

    1-D Setup for Cylinder (Type 21700) Battery

    1-D Setup using the Battery Block Insulation

    Anisotropic Module – Batteries

    The Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Conductivity are measured along the axial and radial directions. Cylinder axial and radial

    TPS sensor is set-up in single-sided (asymmetric) configuration. The Battery Insulation Block provides known backing insulation for single-sided (asymmetric) configuration.

    Anisotropic Set-up for Cylinder (Type 21700) Battery with Battery Insulation Block

    MP-1 TPS Package for Cylinder Batteries

    Cylinder Batteries Diameter (mm)
    TPS Modules
    Sensors
    Temperature Range (°C)*
    10 to 60
    Cylinder Cp Cell, TPS Sensor
    -75 to 90

    *can be expanded 300 °C if required

    Prismatic - Pouch Batteries

    Prismatic batteries consist of sheets of anodes, separators and cathodes that are rolled into a cylinder shape and packed into a cubic form. Pouch batteries have similar construction sealed in a lightweight foil

    Specific Heat Module - Prismatic - Pouch Batteries

    Specific Heat Capacity is measured with TPS Specific Heat Module with Cp Cell designed for Prismatic - Pouch shapes. First a reference measurement is done on empty Cp cell, followed by measurement with inserted battery. Results are measured in Heat Capacity (J/K), Specific Heat (kJ/kg-K) and Volumetric Specific Heat (MJ/m³K).

    Included with the Specific Module for batteries is one standard Prismatic - Pouch Cp Cell, TPS Sensor. Custom Cp Cells can also be developed for a wide range of battery sizes.

    Empty Cp Cell Reference Setup

    Pouch Battery Cp Cell Sample Setup

    1 – Dimensional Module – Prismatic - Pouch Batteries

    The Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity are measured along the height of a Prismatic - Pouch shapes with the 1-Dimensional (1-D) Module. 1-D Prismatic

    TPS Sensor of similar dimensions is set-up in single-sided (asymmetric) configuration.

    Included with the 1-D Module for batteries is one TPS Sensor. Custom TPS diameter can also be developed for a wide range of battery sizes (up to 250 x 250 mm).

    Anisotropic Module – Prismatic - Pouch Batteries

    The Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Conductivity are measured along the axial and radial directions. Pouch axial and radial

    TPS sensor can be set-up in one of a few different configurations:

    Single-sided (Asymmetric)

    TPS sensor is sandwiched between prismatic – pouch battery and known insulation backing.

    Two-Sided (Symmetric)

    TPS sensor is sandwiched between two pieces of the same prismatic – pouch battery.

    Integrated (Pouch Only)

    Graphic demonstrating the TPS sensor which is internally sandwiched – sealed between similar layers inside the Pouch Battery.

    MP-1 TPS Package for Prismatic - Pouch Batteries

    Prismatic - Pouch Batteries Dimensions (mm)
    TPS Modules
    Sensors
    Temperature Range (°C)*
    up to 250 x 250
    Pouch Cp Cell, TPS Sensor
    -75 to 90

    *can be expanded 300 °C if required

    Transient Plane Source (TPS) Models Comparison

    Models
    Thermal Conductivity
    Additional Properties
    Sample Size (mm)
    Sample Thickness (mm)
    Test Time (seconds)
    Temperature Range
    Two-Sided (Symmetric) Sensor
    Single-Sided (Asymmetric) Sensor
    TPS Sensors (Radius, mm)
    Contact Resistance (units)
    Bulk – 3D Thermal Conductivity
    Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity
    Slab Thermal Conductivity
    Direct Specific Heat
    1-D – Thermal Conductivity
    Thin-Film / Coatings
    Integrated Switch
    (x 4 channels)
    Temperature Platforms
    Ovens - Automated
    Optional THW Method for Liquids
    ISO 22007-2 Compliant
    MP-1 with TPS
    0.005 to 1800 W/m•K
    Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, Thermal Effusivity, Contact Resistance
    5 x 5 to unlimited
    0.01 to unlimited
    0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280
    Room Temperature
    0 to 300 °C
    -160 | -50 | -20 | 0 to 300 °C
    Yes
    Yes
    0.5, 0.8, 2, 3.2, 6.4, 10, 15, 30
    Measured & Manual
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    TPS-2
    0.01 to 100 | 0.01 to 500 W/m•K
    Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, Thermal Effusivity
    10 x 10 to unlimited
    0.1 to unlimited
    2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160
    Room Temperature
    RT to 300 °C
    -75 to 200 °C
    Yes
    Yes
    2, 3.2, 6.4, 10
    Manual
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    No
    No
    No
    No
    Yes
    No
    Yes
    TPS-3
    0.03 to 80 W/m•K
    Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, Thermal Effusivity
    40 x 40 to unlimited
    5 to unlimited
    10, 20, 40, 80, 160
    Room Temperature
    10 to 80 °C
    Yes
    No
    10
    Manual
    Yes
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    MP-2 with TPS-4
    0.03 to 5 W/m•K
    No
    35 x 35 to unlimited
    5 to unlimited
    20 and 40
    Room Temperature
    10 to 40 °C
    No
    Yes
    6.4
    Automatic
    Yes
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    No
    Yes
    No
    THW Sensors and Cells
    THW-RT Sensor
    THW-RT Sensor (10 to 40 °C)

    THW Sensor for liquids, pastes and small particle powders in composite for measurements at ambient pressure.

    thw-l200 sensors
    THW-L200 Sensor (-50 to 200 °C) up to 20 bar

    THW Sensor for liquids, pastes and small particle powders is stainless steel construction with sealed liquid cell for use of back pressure to test past boiling points.

    thw-l300 sensors
    THW-L300 Sensor (-50 to 300 °C) up to 35 bar

    High-Temperature THW Sensor for liquids, pastes and small particle powders is stainless steel construction with sealed liquid cell for use of back pressure to test past boiling points.

    THW-LT Sensor
    THW-LT Sensor (-160 to 200 °C) up to 35 bar

    Low-Temperature THW Sensor for liquids, pastes, and small particle powders at cryogenic conditions.

    Paste and PCM Cel
    Paste and PCM Cell

    Special Phase Change Materials (PCM) with easy to load access. Unique spring design allows sample expansion and contraction while ensuring sample is in constant contact with THW wire during measurement.

    Ambient Density Powder Cell
    Ambient Density Powder Cell

    The THW Ambient Density Powder Cell is suitable for basic powder sample testing at ambient pressure.

    Observation Cell
    Observation Cell

    THW observation sample cell is used for liquids, powder, and paste testing. The cell has convenient glass ports for observing what is happening with the sample. Typical applications are phase separation, boiling or particle settling.

    Variable Density Powder Cell
    Variable Density Powder Cell

    THW test cell with screw-type compression system for varying the density of powder samples can also be used to ensure powders stay in contact with THW wire.

    THW Testing

    Demonstrating the accuracy of the transient hot wire method, below are thermophysical measurements of water and ethylene glycol. Low back pressure can be applied, to allow testing past boiling points.

    WATER

    Thermal Conductivity

    Thermal Conductivity of Water

    Thermal Diffusivity

    Thermal Diffusivity of Water

    Volumetric Specific Heat

    Specific Heat of Water

    ETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Thermal Conductivity

    Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Glycol

    Thermal Diffusivity

    Thermal Diffusivity of Ethylene Glycol

    Volumetric Specific Heat

    Volumetric Specific Heat of Ethylene Glycol

    Citation: International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, “Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2011 for the Thermal Conductivity of Ordinary Water Substance,” Sept. 2011, Plzen, Czech Republic.
    https://www.iapws.org/relguide/ThCond.html

    PCM Tests

    Testing of phase change materials is possible with the use of the optional PCM cell. The unique spring design ensures the sample stays in contact with the sensing wire through phase changes. Isopropanol was measured for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat from 20 °C to -110 °C . The sharp “anomalous” thermal conductivity rise during the phase transition is expected during the melting of the samples.

    ISOPROPANOL

    Thermal Conductivity

    PCM Test Isopropanol

    Thermal Diffusivity

    PCM Test Isopropanol

    Volumetric Specific Heat

    PCM Test Isopropanol

     
    Transient Hot Wire (THW) Models Comparison

    Models
    Materials
    Testing Modules
    Other Materials
    Thermal Conductivity
    Sample Size
    Additional Properties
    Temperature Range
    Pressure
    Test Times
    Data-Points
    Thermal Conductivity Accuracy
    Repeatability
    Standards
    External Cooling Apparatus Required
    MP-1 with THW
    Liquids, Pastes, and Powders
    Bulk
    Solids with TPS
    0.01 to 2 W/m•K
    20 mL
    Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat
    Room Temperature
    10 to 200 °C | -50/-15/0 to 200 °C
    -160/-45/-15/0 to 300 °C
    Up to 35 bar*
    1 second
    400 points/second
    2 %
    1 %
    ASTM D7896-19
    No | Yes*
    THW-L1
    Liquids, Pastes, and Powders
    Bulk
    No
    0.01 to 2 W/m•K
    20 mL
    Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat
    10 to 200 °C | -50/-15/0 to 200 °C
    -160/-45/-15/0 to 300 °C
    Up to 35 bar*
    1 second
    100 points/second
    2 %
    1 %
    ASTM D7896-19
    No | Yes*
    THW-L2
    Liquids, Pastes, and Powders
    Bulk
    No
    0.01 to 2 W/m•K
    15 mL
    No
    -50 to 100 °C
    Ambient
    1 second |
    60 points/second
    5 %
    2 %
    ASTM D7896-19
    Yes
    MP-2 with THW-L3
    Liquids, Pastes, and Powders
    Bulk
    Solids with TPS, TLS
    0.01 to 1 W/m•K
    15 mL
    No
    Room Temperature
    10 to 40 °C
    Ambient
    1 second
    60 points/second
    5 %
    2 %
    ASTM D7896-19
    Yes
    *Depending on the Model used

    Transient Plane Source Accessories copy

    Muffle Furnace

    Muffle Furnace

    • Large sample or multiple samples
    • Size up to: 150 x 150 x 50 mm
    • 750 °C in backfilled environment
    Tube Furnace

    Tube Furnace

    • Option 1: 40 x 40 x 13 mm
    • Option 2: 75 x 75 x 25 mm
    • 1000 °C in backfilled environment
    TPS Accessories - Fan Furnace

    Fan Furnace

    • Affordable, versatile, expandable
    • Up to 4 samples
    • Size up to: 75 x 75 x 50 mm
    • 300 °C and 400 °C options
    TPS Switch

    TPS / THW Expanding Switch

    • Automate multi-sensor testing
    • Channels: x2, x4, or x8
    Two-Sided TPS-Sensor

    TPS Two-Sided Sensors

    • Two-sided sensor for accurate lab testing        
    Single-Sided TPS Sensor

    TPS Single-Sided Sensor

    • Spring-loaded sensor for testing large samples or one when only one piece of sample is available.
    Extended TPS Sensors

    Extended TPS Sensors

    • Small sensors for samples as small as 5 mm
    • Large sensors for heterogeneous samples or large particle powders
    Compression Stand + Temperature

    Compression Stand + Temperature

    • For compressible materials
    • Force gauge: 10 to 100 N
    • Distance gauge
    • Room temperature or -40 to 200 °C

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        Thermal Conductivity of cutting fluids with the Transient Hot Wire

        Depending on the context and on which type of cutting fluid is being considered, these fluids may be referred to as cutting fluid, cutting oil, cutting compound, coolant, or lubricant. The main purposes of these fluids are to keep the object being cut at a stable temperature, maximize the life of the cutting tip, and prevent rust on machine parts and cutters.

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